- Used to talk about real possibilities
- If + present simple + may / will / might / should + infinitive without to
- E.g. If you ask her, she’ll (she will) answer your question.
- Used to talk about unreal situations in the present or future
- If + past simple + would / could / might + infinitive without to
- E.g. If you were a superhero(ine), what would you do?
- Used to talk about unreal situations in the past
- Used to express regrets or to criticise
- If + past perfect + would / could / might + have + past participle
- E.g. If she had participated in the race, she could have won a medal.
- E.g. If I had studied harder, I would have got better grades. (regrets)
For Mixed Conditionals and more details, see Language Reference page 148
Interesting / Relevant Articles:
Book to Screen Adaptions:
F. Scott Fitzgerald’s ‘The Great Gatsby’:
1974 Film trailer (Directed by Francis Ford Coppola. Starring Robert Redford, Mia Farrow, Bruce Dern and Sam Waterston):
2013 Film trailer (Directed by Baz Luhrmann. Starring Leonardo DiCaprio, Carey Mulligan, Tobey Maguire and Joel Edgerton and Isla Fischer).
Is Reading the New Therapy?
Breaking into the film industry – Scriptwriters
Reading via Smartphones:
Reasons why actual books are better than e-books:
Food for Thought:
Lit Recommendations for Football Fans:
Patrick Modiano, Winner of 2014 Nobel Prize Winner for Literature:
Günter Grass, Winner of 1999 Nobel Prize for Literature:
Youtube film trailer of “The Tin Drum” (1979):
Book Tank (to mark World Book Day 2015):
Fictional Languages from Literature and Film:
Adjectives (synonyms) you can use for writing a review (to describe a book/film):
- Exciting: thrilling, exhilarating, dramatic, fast-paced, sensational, gripping, intriguing, lively, electrifying, nail-biting, edge of the seat
- Interesting: fascinating, compelling, absorbing, riveting, engaging, striking, stimulating, engrossing, enthralling
- Good: brilliant, superb, outstanding, great, exceptional, excellent, favourable, awesome, marvellous, spectacular
- Bad: atrocious, appalling, dreadful, terrible, awful, lousy, poor, inferior, inadequate, dissatisfactory, rotten
- Boring: dull, tedious, monotonous, ponderous, mundane, slow-paced
- Funny: hilarious, humorous, comical, uproarious, entertaining
- Stupid: crazy, absurd, ridiculous, laughable, dumb, idiotic
- Nice: pleasant, pleasing, beautiful, lovely, appealing, delightful
Literary devices (terms):
Writing a Book / Film Review
Present Perfect Passive and Past Simple Passive
Use of passive in order to focus action itself, not on who does the action (the agent).
The Present Perfect passive used to talk about events that happened in a period of time that continued from the past up to the present. Time expression not used with present perfect tense because time is unspecified.
have/has + been + past participle
E.g. The topside has been fitted to the spar
The Past Simple passive used with completed actions or actions that took place at a specific time.
was/were + past participle
E.g. The topside was fitted to the spar in 2009.
For more information, see Course Book Language Summary, page 101
Cohesion; by (means of); (in order) to
Method: to explain how we did something
use ‘by’ …-ing / using / by means of
E.g. The spar was secured by fastening it to the seabed with nine cables.
Purpose: to explain why we did something
in order + infinitive / in order to
E.g. The spar was secured (in order) to prevent it from moving around in heavy seas.