First Conditional

  • Used to talk about real possibilities
  • If + present simple + may / will / might / should + infinitive without to
  • E.g. If you ask her, she’ll (she will) answer your question.

Second Conditional

  • Used to talk about unreal situations in the present or future
  • If + past simple + would / could / might + infinitive without to
  • E.g. If you were a superhero(ine), what would you do?

Third Conditional

  • Used to talk about unreal situations in the past
  • Used to express regrets or to criticise
  • If + past perfect + would / could / might + have + past participle
  • E.g. If she had participated in the race, she could have won a medal.
  • E.g. If I had studied harder, I would have got better grades. (regrets)

For Mixed  Conditionals and more details, see Language Reference page 148


Unit 6 – Literature and Film (“The New Language Leader”)

Interesting / Relevant Articles:

Book to Screen Adaptions:

F. Scott Fitzgerald’s ‘The Great Gatsby’:

1974 Film trailer (Directed by Francis Ford Coppola.  Starring Robert Redford, Mia Farrow, Bruce Dern and Sam Waterston): 

2013 Film trailer (Directed by Baz Luhrmann.  Starring Leonardo DiCaprio, Carey Mulligan, Tobey Maguire and Joel Edgerton and Isla Fischer).

Is Reading the New Therapy?

Breaking into the film industry – Scriptwriters

‘Pulp Fiction’:

Reading via Smartphones:

Reasons why actual books are better than e-books:

Food for Thought:

Lit Recommendations for Football Fans:

Patrick Modiano, Winner of 2014 Nobel Prize Winner for Literature:

Günter Grass, Winner of 1999 Nobel Prize for Literature:

Youtube film trailer of “The Tin Drum” (1979):

Book Tank (to mark World Book Day 2015):

Fictional Languages from Literature and Film:


Adjectives (synonyms) you can use for writing a review (to describe a book/film):

  • Exciting: thrilling, exhilarating, dramatic, fast-paced, sensational, gripping, intriguing, lively, electrifying, nail-biting, edge of the seat
  • Interesting: fascinating, compelling, absorbing, riveting, engaging, striking, stimulating, engrossing, enthralling
  • Good: brilliant, superb, outstanding, great, exceptional, excellent, favourable, awesome, marvellous, spectacular
  • Bad: atrocious, appalling, dreadful, terrible, awful, lousy, poor, inferior, inadequate, dissatisfactory, rotten
  • Boring: dull, tedious, monotonous, ponderous, mundane, slow-paced
  • Funny: hilarious, humorous, comical, uproarious, entertaining
  • Stupid: crazy, absurd, ridiculous, laughable, dumb, idiotic
  • Nice: pleasant, pleasing, beautiful, lovely, appealing, delightful

Literary devices (terms):

Surprising facts:


Narrative Tenses:

Writing a Book / Film Review

Unit 4 – Medicine (‘New Language Leader’)

Interesting / Relevant Articles:

Medical Innovations:

Medical innovations in the digital age






‘Superbugs’ (resistant to antibiotics):

The Bionic Eye:

Microsoft’s HoloLens and the future of medicine:


The $30 billion telemedicine industry: What’s missing?

WonderWork (a charitable organization that provides free surgeries for children in the poorest countries of the world).

The Science of Wasabi (Japanese Horseradish /’Meerrettich’) and the development of new pain meds:

Ingredients in Medicines:

Revolutionising Cancer Treatment:

da Vinci surgical system:

Quiz: Can You Diagnose These Common Illness?”:

Quiz: Do you know what do these doctors specialise in?:


Websites for medical-related vocabulary / terminology:

Lesson 8 – Projects: Review


Present Perfect Passive and Past Simple Passive

Use of passive in order to focus action itself, not on who does the action (the agent).

The Present Perfect passive used to talk about events that happened in a period of time that continued from the past up to the present.  Time expression not used with present perfect tense because time is unspecified.

have/has + been + past participle

E.g. The topside has been fitted to the spar

The Past Simple passive used with completed actions or actions that took place at a specific time.

was/were + past participle

E.g. The topside was fitted to the spar in 2009.

For more information, see Course Book Language Summary, page 101

Cohesion; by (means of); (in order) to

Method: to explain how we did something

use ‘by’ …-ing  /  using  / by means of

E.g. The spar was secured by fastening it to the seabed with nine cables.

Purpose:  to explain why we did something

in order + infinitive  / in order to 

E.g. The spar was secured (in order) to prevent it from moving around in heavy seas.

Phrases for Agreeing / Disagreeing

Phrases for making Polite Requests

  • I would be grateful if….
  • I would appreciate it if…
  • I would be most appreciative if…
  • Could you please…
  • Would you please…

Phrases for Agreeing and Disagreeing


  • Yes, I agree
  • I agree with you
  • I’m happy with that
  • agreed
  • right
  • certainly
  • you’re right
  • by all means
  • that’s right
  • that’s fine by me
  • that’s a good point


  • I don’t agree
  • I disagree
  • I can’t go along with that
  • I’m not convinced
  • I’m not sure
  • certainly not
  • I have a different opinion
  • I don’t share that view/opinion
  • I beg to differ

Useful Websites for Learning English / Business English

Useful Websites for English/Business English (Brit. English) or: (American Englisch)

*Resources provided/complied by Frau Marion Zink (MZ Bildungs- und Sprachenservice)

Online / E-Dictionaries

Online E-Dictionaries

1. Bilingual Dictionaries: (download for free)

2. Monolingual Dictionaries: (Dictionary) (Encyclopedia) (Quotations) (“Dictionary look-up”)

*Resources provided/compiled by Frau Marion Zink (MZ Bildungs- und Sprachenservice)