Reported Speech

Grammar – Reported Speech

When using reported speech, we often make changes to:   1) tense of the verb,  2) pronouns and   3) time adverbs.

1) Tense change

As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense: (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right):

Direct speech  Indirect speech 
Present simple
She said, “It’s cold.”
Past simple 
She said it was cold. 
Present continuous 
She said, “I’m teaching English online.” 
Past continuous 
She said she was teaching English online. 
Present perfect simple 
She said, “I’ve been on the web since 1999.”
Past perfect simple 
She said she had been on the web since 1999. 
Present perfect continuous 
She said, “I’ve been teaching English for seven years.”
Past perfect continuous 
She said she had been teaching English for seven years. 
Past simple 
She said, “I taught online yesterday.”
Past perfect 
She said she had taught online yesterday. 
Past continuous 
She said, “I was teaching earlier.” 
Past perfect continuous 
She said she had been teaching earlier. 
Past perfect 
She said, “The lesson had already started when he arrived.”
Past perfect 
NO CHANGE – She said the lesson had already started when he arrived.
Past perfect continuous
She said, “I’d already been teaching for five minutes.”
Past perfect continuous 
NO CHANGE – She said she’d already been teaching for five minutes.

Modal verb forms also sometimes change:

Direct speech  Indirect speech 
will 
She said, “I’ll teach English online tomorrow.”
would 
She said she would teach English online tomorrow. 
can 
She said, “I can teach English online.” 
could 
She said she could teach English online. 
must 
She said, “I must have a computer to teach English online.”
had to 
She said she had to have a computer to teach English online. 
shall 
She said, “What shall we learn today?” 
should 
She asked what we should learn today. 
may 
She said, “May I open a new browser?”
might 
She asked if she might open a new browser.

!Note – There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to.

Direct speech Indirect speech
“I might go to the cinema”, he said. He said he might go to the cinema.

You can use the present tense in reported speech if you want to say that something is still true i.e. my name has always been and will always be Lynne so:-

Direct speech Indirect speech
“My name is Lynne”, she said. She said her name was Lynne. 

or

She said her name is Lynne. 

You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event.

Direct speech (exact quote) Indirect speech (not exact)
“Next week’s lesson is on reported speech”, she said. She said next week’s lesson will be on reported speech.

2) Pronoun change

In reported speech, the pronoun often changes.

For example: 

Me You 
“I teach English online.” Direct Speech

She said, “I teach English online.”

“I teach English online”, she said.

Reported Speech

She said  she teaches English online.

or

She said she taught English online.

3) Time change / Time adverbs

If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to fit in with the time of reporting.

For example we need to change words like here and yesterday if they have different meanings at the time and place of reporting.

Now + 24 hours – Indirect speech
“Today’s lesson is on presentations.” She said yesterday’s lesson was on presentations.

or

She said yesterday’s lesson would be on presentations.

Expressions of time if reported on a different day 
this (evening)  that (evening) 
today yesterday … 
these (days)  those (days) 
now  then 
(a week) ago  (a week) before 
last weekend  the weekend before last / the previous weekend 
here  there 
next (week)  the following (week) 
tomorrow  the next/following day 

In addition if you report something that someone said in a different place to where you heard it you must change the place (here) to the place (there).

For example:- 

At work At home
“How long have you worked here?”  She asked me how long I’d worked there.

Reporting verbs

The choice of reporting verb can change the meaning of a sentence.

E.g. The police officer ordered the man to hand over the bag

Compared to:

E.g. The police officer told the man to hand over the bag.

In the examples, the use of ‘ordered’ suggests greater urgency and emphasises the authority of the police officer, whereas the use of ‘told’ is more neutral.

Reporting verbs that:

  • Provide information: told, asked, informed, said

E.g. The librarian told him that his books were overdue.

  • State an imperative / a command, often suggesting urgency: ordered, insisted, demanded

E.g. The angry parent stormed into the school and demanded to see the principal immediately.

  • Provide an affirmative: confirmed

E.g.  The airline official confirmed that the flight was on schedule

  • Suggest an obligatory follow-up action: promised

E.g. After she threatened to send him to the principal’s office, the boy promised his teacher that he would do his homework.

  • Provide direction or guidance: directed, instructed

E.g. The master technician instructed the new employee on the correct usage of the machine.

  • Provide clarification: explained

E.g. The surgeon carefully explained to the medical students the details of the procedure she was going to perform.

  • Provide a measure of certainty and confidence: assured 

E.g. The online store assured all its customers that they would receive all their purchases in time for Christmas.

References:

https://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/reportedspeech.html

Online Exercises:

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/reported-speech

http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises_list/reported.htm

Oral Presentation – Tips and Helpful Phrases / Signposts

GUIDELINES FOR PRESENTATIONS

A typical presentations comprise 3 main parts:

Part 1: Introduction
Part 2: Main body
Part 3: Conclusion

Part 1: Introduction

1.  Welcoming your audience

  • Good morning / afternoon, ladies and gentlemen.
  • First of all, let me thank you all for coming here today.
  • It’s a pleasure to welcome you today ..

2.  Introduce yourself

  • Let me introduce myself. I’m …
  • For those of you who don’t know me,my name is …

3.  Introduce your topic

  • I am going to talk to you today about…
  • The subject / topic of my presentationis …
  • The purpose of my presentation is to…

4.  Saying why your topic is important for the audience

  • My topic is / will be very important for you because …
  • By the end of my talk you will be familiar with …

5.  Describe the structure of your presentation

  • I’ve divided my presentation into (three) main parts.
  • To start with I’ll describe …
  • Then I’ll mention …
  • After that I’ll …
  • Finally, I’ll summarize my presentation

6.  Say how long the talk will be

  • My presentation will take about (10) minutes.
  • It will take about (10) minutes to cover these issues.

7.  Say when you will answer questions

  • Do feel free to interrupt me if you have any questions.
  • I’ll try to answer all of your questions after the presentation.

Part 2: Body or Main Part

The body is the “real” presentation. If the introduction was well prepared and delivered, you will now be “in control”. You can relax and be confident.

1.  Saying what is coming

  • In this part of my presentation, I’d like to talk about …

2.  Indicating the end of a section

  • This brings me to the end of my first point.

3.  Moving to the next point

  • This leads directly to my next point.
  • Let’s now move onto/turn to…
  • Now let’s take a look at …

4.  Going back

  • As I said / mentioned earlier …
  • As I’ve already explained …

Part 3: Conclusion

1.  Signal the end of your talk

  • I’m now approaching / nearing the end of my presentation
  • This brings me to the end of my presentation.
  • Ok, I think that’s everything I wanted to say about …

2.  Summarize the key points

  • Before I stop, let me go over the key issues again.
  • To conclude / In conclusion, I’d like to …
  • So let me summarize what I’ve said …

3.  Thank your audience

  • Thank you very much / Many thanks for your attention.
  • May I thank you all for being such an attentive audience.

Part 4: Using Visuals
If you choose to use visuals, these are some useful phrases and vocabulary:

1.  Introducing a visual

  • Let’s now look at the next slide which shows …
  • The chart on the following slide shows …
  • As you can see here, …

2.  Explaining a visual

  • First, let me quickly explain the graph.
  • (The new models) are listed across thebottom

3.  Highlighting information

  • I’d like to stress / highlight / emphasize the following points(s).
  • Let me point out that …
  • What’s really important here is …

4.  Describing trends

  • Sales increased slightly …
  • Consumer spending fell / declined sharply…
  • Interest rates have risen steadily…
  • Prices went up significantly …
  • This was followed by a decline …

5.  Explaining cause and effect

  • The unexpected drop was caused by …
  • This was because of …
  • As a result …

Part 5: Dealing with Questions

Questions are a good opportunity for you to interact with your audience. It may be helpful for you to try to predict what questions will be asked so that you can prepare your response in advance. Be polite with all questioners, even if they ask difficult questions. They are showing interest in what you have to say and deserve attention.

1.  Clarifying questions

  • I’m afraid I didn’t quite catch that.
  • I’m sorry could you repeat your question,please?
  • If I understood you correctly, you would liketo know whether …
  • Does that answer your question?

2.  Avoiding giving an answer

  • If you don’t mind, could we discuss that on another occasion?
  • I’m afraid that’s not really what we’re discussing today.

3.  Admitting you don’t know

  • I’m afraid I don’t know the answer to your question, but I’ll try to find out for you.
  • Sorry, I don’t know that off the top of my head.

4.  Postponing questions

  • If you don’t mind, I’ll deal with / come back to this point later in my presentation.
  • Perhaps we could go over this after the presentation.

General Tips:

4 ‘C’s – Be calm, be confident, be clear, be concise

  • Prepare well – choose your topic wisely and do your research
  • Keep to time-limit (about 8 min)
  • Talk not read!  Try to memorise the text so that you won’t be tempted to just read it off the page
  • Practice, practice, practice!
  • Smile and maintain eye contact with your audience, use humour
  • Check slides for grammar and spelling

Useful references:

https://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/professors-guide/2010/02/24/15-strategies-for-giving-oral-presentations

https://www.skillsyouneed.com/present/presentation-tips.html

Oral Examination 2017 – General Information

General Information:

  • 8-10 minute oral presentation, 3-5 minutes for questions / spontaneous discussion
  • Topic of your choice.  Can be a business, technical or a topic covered in  B2 course.  E.g. company profile, a new market segment, a description of a technical device, environmental or cultural issues, globalisation, sport…Look at blog for ideas
  • Oral Examinations to take place (in classroom / during class time) on: MONDAY 12th / 19th JUNE 2017
  • To fill in sign-up sheet
  • On sheet, student to indicate:
    1) Preferred Date and 2) Chosen Topic*

*Company Profile*:

May include:

  • Some facts – history, industrial sector, global profile, yearly revenue, financial situation
  • The strengths of the company – brand image, existing products and new products, impact on the environment
  • The threats – any future dangers like existing or new competition, political problems, demand and supply issues
  • Future goals – such as entering a new market segment (for example with a new product), acquisition of related company

*Describing a Technical Device, Process or Latest Technology*

May include:

  • How it works. The functions/technical specifications
  • What it is made of. The materials and properties
  • What it looks like. Dimensions, shape, characteristics
  • How it is used by people – Applications
  • Features & benefits the product brings the customer /user.
  • Trends in technical development – E.g. Current state of technology and future projections of its development.

Tips:

  • Choose topic wisely and do your research
  • Proof-read slides carefully for grammatical / spelling errors
  • Practice, practice and practice!
  • Use your own laptop or have USB stick for the e-board (if giving an e-presentation)
  • Familiarise yourself with all equipment in classroom prior to presentation

How to Give a Better Speech: Talk to a Dog:

http://mobile.nytimes.com/2016/08/07/education/edlife/how-to-give-a-better-speech-talk-to-a-dog.html?smprod=nytcore-iphone&smid=nytcore-iphone-share&referer=https%3A%2F%2Ft.co%2Fkt0Jn4rOxh&_r=0

Structure / Format for Writing Formal Emails

There are different reasons for writing formal emails.

The basic format is the same, but of course the content will vary depending on the purpose of the email.

Format / Structure of a Business or Formal Email

1.   Subject Line

  • Topic of Email
  • Concise statement of what the email is about

2.   Salutation / Opening Greeting

  • Dear Sir / Madam (if you do not know the person)
  • Dear Prof Rohan / Dear Ms Salvatore (if you know the name of the recipient)

3.   Introduction

  • Give your email context.
  • State how you know the recipient of the email,
    • I attended your talk on public speaking at the University.
    • I purchased one of your products (Order No. PTP15667)*.  Indicate Order Number in case of business or sale transaction
    • I refer to your advertisement for the post of Industrial Designer in the job section of The Times (Ref: 17.05.2015, Section 3, page 12)
    • I read a review of your product in the December 2016 issue of Industrial and Occupational Safety.
  • You could refer to a previous meeting, conversation or prior contact (if relevant)
    • We met at a conference last month.
    • In reference to our earlier email correspondence dated 22.05.15.
    • Ms Simmon introduced us at the sales meeting last Friday.  
    • I worked as an intern in your company last summer.

4.  Body of Email

  • Reason for writing the email
    • Making a request such as issuing an invitation to an event, e.g. I would like to invite you to…
    • Seeking information, e.g. I would be grateful if you could please send me information about…
    •  Posing a question, e.g. I would like to know… 
    • Giving Information, e.g. We are pleased to inform you… / I am glad to let you know
    • Filing a complaint, e.g. I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with…. 
    • Acknowledging / addressing a complaint, e.g. We are sorry to hear about your …
    • Applying for a job (Cover letter), e.g. I would like to apply for the post of … / I am interested in the position of ….
  • Mention of Attachment (if relevant)
    • Please find attached a document giving full details of the programme.
    • I am attaching the information sheet for your reference.
    • I am sending the brochure as a pdf file for your information.
    • Attached is a copy of my Curriculum Vitae for your reference.
  • Additional Information
    • If you have any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact me.
    • Please feel free to contact me if you require further information.
    • Please contact me if I can be of further assistance

5.  Complimentary Close  

  • Can include a sentence to initiate future contact, e.g.
    • I look forward to hearing from you.
    • I look forward to your reply.
    • Thank you in advance.
    • Thank you for your kind consideration.

6.  Signing off

  • Yours sincerely (if you opened with the name, e.g. Ms George)
  • Yours faithfully (if you opened with Sir/Madam)

7.  Sender’s Name (Your name!)

8.  Position of Sender + Contact details

  •  Health and Safety Officer, Tel: 0988-65723

 

*Look at the example in Coursebook page 14 and see my other post for Samples of formal emails.

Homework – Mon 27.3.17 

Write an email – Requesting Information

  • Your name is Carole Lim.
  • You are the Health and Safety Officer in a woodworking company (name of your company: WoodWerk) based in Lancaster, U.K.
  • You read an article about a revolutionary earplug developed by Ms Sharan Jafri in the latest issue of the Engineering and Technology Journal (Feburary 2017)

Write an email to Ms Sharan Jafri to request:

  1. Technical details of this product
  2. Price and minimum order requirements.
  • Start with the Subject Line.
  • Write an email of about 70-90 words

 

More resources for / about writing emails:

https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-emails

http://www.myenglishteacher.eu/blog/formal-and-informal-email-phrases/

http://www.learn-english-today.com/business-english/business-letters.html

http://www.dailywritingtips.com/email-etiquette/

http://www.mnn.com/money/green-workplace/stories/youre-ending-your-emails-all-wrong

https://www.grammarly.com/blog/how-to-end-an-email/?utm_medium=social&utm_source=Facebook_org&utm_content=&utm_campaign=Blog_Lifestyle

 

Using the Passive

Grammar:

Passive tenses

  • Present Simple Passive: am / is / are + past participle, e.g. is built / are measured
  • Present Continuous Passive: am / is / are being + past participle, e.g. are being constructed
  • Future Simple Passive: will be + past participle, e.g. will be completed
  • Past Simple Passive: was / were + past participle, e.g. was designed
  • Past Continuous Passive: was/were being + past participle, e.g. were being deployed
  • Present Perfect Passive: has / have + been + past participle, e.g. has been published
  • Past Perfect Passive: had been + past participle, e.g. had been postponed
Tense Active Passive
present simple make a cake. A cake is made (by me).
present continuous am making a cake. A cake is being made (by me).
past simple made a cake. A cake was made (by me).
past continuous was making a cake. A cake was being made(by me).
present perfect have made a cake. A cake has been made (by me).
pres. perf. continuous have been making a cake. A cake has been being made (by me).
past perfect had made a cake. A cake had been made(by me).
future simple will make a cake. A cake will be made (by me).
future perfect will have made a cake. A cake will have been made (by me).

http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/passive.html

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive

http://www.grammarly.com/blog/2015/how-to-use-the-passive-voice-correctly-2/?utm_source=trending&position=1

Writing Comparisons

Writing Skills – Comparison and Contrast (Comparing Features, page 70, Ex. 4)

Compare the bridges in terms of age, length, appearance using the following comparative words and phrases.

in comparison (to / with), on the other hand, however, whereas, while, in contrast to, by way (of) contrast, far more / fewer / older / newer, significantly longer/shorter, slightly older/newer

Sample Answers:

  • The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge (3,910m) is significantly longer than the Alamillo Bridge (200m).
  • The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge (3,910m) is slightly longer than the Golden Gate Bridge (2,739m).
  • The Alamillo Bridge is 200m long, while / whereas the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge is an impressive 3,910m long.
  • In comparison to the other bridges, the Charles Bridge is extremely old.
  • The Golden Gate Bridge was built in 1937, on the other hand / while / whereas the Charles Bridge was built in the 14th century.
  • Built in the 14th century the Charles Bridge is far older than the other bridges.
  • The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge, while / whereas the Charles Bridge is an arch bridge
  • The Charles Bridge is made of sandstone, whereas the Alamillo Bridge is made of concrete and steel.
  • In comparison with the other bridges, the harp-shaped Alamillo Bridge has a very distinctive design.
  • The Alamillo Bridge is shaped like a harp while / whereas the other bridges have a more conventional design.

Prefixes

Vocabulary – Opposites (Prefixes)

in-

  • appropriate / inappropriate
  • capable / incapable
  • direct / indirect
  • complete / incomplete
  • comparable / incomparable
  • considerate / inconsiderate
  • congruous / incongruous
  • tolerant / intolerant
  • sane / insane
  • exact / inexact
  • direct / indirect
  • frequent / infrequent
  • offensive / inoffensive
  • correct / incorrect

-dis

  • connect / disconnect
  • engage / disengage
  • pleased / displeased
  • honest / dishonest
  • trust / distrust
  • advantage / disadvantage
  • allow / disallow
  • obey / disobey
  • continue / discontinue
  • able / disable
  • approve / disapprove
  • satisfy / dissatisfy
  • taste / distaste
  • loyal / disloyal
  • agree / disagree
  • similar / dissimilar
  • infect / disinfect

mis-

  • inform / misinform
  • represent / misrepresent
  • pronounce / mispronounce
  • communicate / miscommunicate
  • spell / misspell
  • lead / mislead
  • judge / misjudge
  • treat / mistreat
  • diagnosis / misdiagnosis
  • calculate / miscalculate
  • read / misread
  • interpret / misinterpret
  • construe / misconstrue
  • place / misplace

un-

  • grateful / ungrateful
  • ethical / unethical
  • intelligible / unintelligible
  • important / unimportant
  • complicated / uncomplicated
  • avoidable / unavoidable
  • attainable / unattainable
  • available / unavailable
  • pleasant / unpleasant
  • happy / unhappy
  • real / unreal
  • clear / unclear
  • clean / unclean
  • do / undo
  • pack / unpack

 

Writing a Book / Film Review

Writing a book / Film Review

http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/writing-film-book-review.php

http://english-tonight.com/esl-writing-activity-review-of-a-book-or-movie-in-english/

Adjectives (synonyms) you can use for writing a review (to describe a book/film):

  • Exciting: thrilling, exhilarating, dramatic, fast-paced, sensational, gripping, intriguing, lively, electrifying, nail-biting, edge of the seat
  • Interesting: fascinating, compelling, absorbing, riveting, engaging, striking, stimulating, engrossing, enthralling, magical, meaningful, clever
  • Good: brilliant, superb, outstanding, great, exceptional, excellent, favourable, awesome, marvellous, spectacular, wonderful, talented
  • Bad: atrocious, appalling, dreadful, terrible, awful, lousy, poor, inferior, inadequate, dissatisfactory, rotten, weak, horrid, disjointed, disappointing, meaningless
  • Frightening: frightful, fearful, terrifying, shocking, gruesome, horrendous, ghastly, , horrifying, horrific, chilling, macabre, menacing, spooky, scary, petrifying
  • Boring: dull, tedious, monotonous, ponderous, mundane, slow-paced
  • Funny: hilarious, humorous, comical, uproarious, entertaining
  • Stupid: crazy, absurd, ridiculous, laughable, dumb, idiotic, foolish, nonsensical
  • Nice: pleasant, pleasing, beautiful, lovely, appealing, delightful

Sample Review

https://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/skills/writing-skills-practice/film-revie

http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/sites/teacheng/files/Student%20worksheet_0.pdf

Homework Assignment 

Write a review about a book OR film of your choice.

  • State whether you liked or disliked it.
  • Give reasons for your decision.
  • Word length: 150 words (double spaced).